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Streptococcus pyogenes, other Streptococci, and Enterococcus Clinical Manifestations Acute Streptococcus pyogenes infections may take the form of pharyngitis, scarlet fever rashimpetigo, cellulitis, or erysipelas.
Invasive infections can result in necrotizing fasciitis, myositis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Patients may also develop immune-mediated sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis.
S agalactiae may cause meningitis, neonatal sepsis, and pneumonia in neonates; adults may experience vaginitis, puerperal fever, urinary tract infection, skin infection, and endocarditis.
Viridans streptococci can cause endocarditis, and Enterococcus is associated with urinary tract and biliary tract infections.
Anaerobic streptococci participate in mixed infections of the abdomen, pelvis, brain, and lungs. Structure Streptococci are Gram-positive, nonmotile, nonsporeforming, catalase-negative cocci that occur in pairs or chains. Older cultures may lose their Gram-positive character.
Most streptococci are facultative anaerobes, and some are obligate strict anaerobes. Most require enriched media blood agar.
Group A streptococci have a hyaluronic acid capsule. Classification and Antigenic Types Streptococci are classified on the basis of colony morphology, hemolysis, biochemical reactions, and most definitively serologic specificity.
They are divided into three groups by the type of hemolysis on blood agar: Serologic grouping is based on antigenic differences in cell wall carbohydrates groups A to Vin cell wall pili-associated protein, and in the polysaccharide capsule in group B streptococci.
Pathogenesis Streptococci are members of the normal flora. Virulence factors of group A streptococci include 1 M protein and lipoteichoic acid for attachment; 2 a hyaluronic acid capsule that inhibits phagocytosis; 3 other extracellular products, such as pyrogenic erythrogenic toxin, which causes the rash of scarlet fever; and 4 streptokinase, streptodornase DNase Band streptolysins.
Some strains are nephritogenic. Immune-mediated sequelae do not reflect dissemination of bacteria. Nongroup A strains have no defined virulence factors. Host Defenses Antibody to M protein gives type-specific immunity to group A streptococci.
Antibody to erythrogenic toxin prevents the rash of scarlet fever.
Immune mechanisms are important in the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever. Maternal IgG protects the neonate against group B streptococci. The incidence of both respiratory and skin infections peaks in childhood.
Infection can be transmitted by asymptomatic carriers. Acute rheumatic fever was previously common among the poor; susceptibility may be partly genetic. Group B streptococci are common in the normal vaginal flora and occasionally cause invasive neonatal infection. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on cultures from clinical specimens.
Serologic methods can detect group A or B antigen; definitive antigen identification is by the precipitin test.Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as the flesh eating bacteria, is the most pathogenic bacterium in the whole genus (2).
The name pyogenes comes from the word pyogenic, which is a classification for the streptococci that are associated with pus formation. Streptococcus Pyogenes Custom Essay [meteor_slideshow slideshow=”arp1″] Abstract Introduction to contain information about the pathogen, the diseases caused, and clinical and economic significance Differentiating diagnostic characteristics [physiological and biochemical].
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) Essay Words | 8 Pages.
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A streptococcus (GAS), is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that most commonly causes respiratory disease, including pharyngitis or tonsillitis, as well . The beta-hemolytic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes formally belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, where it is known to be the most pathogenic.
Below is an essay on "Streptococcus Pyogenes" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Streptococcus Pyogenes It is estimated that there are over million infections and , severe invasive infections worldwide, annually.
Streptococcus pyogenes Research paper MCB C March 17, Nature of Causative Organism Streptococcus pyogenes, a group A streptococci, is a gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria that can be seen as oval cocci chain forming shapes less than 2 micrometers in diameter under the microscope.